Mr. Hezi Lifshitz
Deputy Director General: Energy Infrastructures and Water Resources
Ministry of Energy
Clima-Med Focal Point
Mr. Hezi Lifshitz
Population (2018): 8,955,000 (national statistics)
Population (2008): 7,412,200 (national statistics – census data)
Population (2000): 6,289,000
Largest cities (inhabitants):
- Jerusalem (2008 census: 759,700; 2017 estimates: 901,302)
- Tel Aviv (2008 census: 402,600; 2017 estimates 443,939)
- Haifa (2008 census: 264,300; 2017 estimates: 281,087)
- RishonLeZion (2008 census: 226,800; 2017 estimates 249,860)
- Ashdod (2008 census: 204,300; 2017 estimates: 222,883)
- Petah Tikva (2008 census 200,300; 2017 estimates 240,357).
Annual population growth (2017): 1.9% (World Bank)
Annual population growth (2010): 1.8%
Annual population growth (2000): 2.7%
Data by national statistics and worldbank.org, all cities’ data based on national statistics, annual population growth calculated based on data by worldbank.
In terms of nominal GDP Israel’s economy is estimated the 34th-largest in the world (International Monetary Fund, 2018). Israel has a technologically advanced market economy with substantial, though diminishing, government participation. It depends on imports of crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has intensively developed its agricultural and industrial sectors over the past 20 years. The recent utilization of natural gas reserves has boosted the economy and has improved the country’s security of supply.
Water and waste
In urban areas 100% of the population has access to both proper water sources and to proper sanitation since 2000 (Worldbank, 2015). According to 2015 figures of the Israeli Ministry of Environmental Protection Israel generates 5.4 million tons of municipal solid waste yearly (per person 1.7 kg/day). Municipal solid waste has increased in the order of 3%-5% every year, but rates vary widely in different parts of the country. Waste collection coverage is high, although exact collection rates are not available. The final destination of collected waste is generally landfilling (75%) and recycling (25%).
Energy and Climate
Israel’s energy consumption in the road transport sector amounted to 39% of its final energy consumption in 2016 (IEA Atlas of Energy) (2008: 38%; 2000: 37%), whereas energy consumption per capita according to worldbank data amounted to 2,777 kg of oil equivalent in 2015, against 2,898 kg in 2007 and 2,899.4 kg in 2000. Electricity consumption amounted to 6.89 MWh per capita in 2016, against 7.09 MWh per capita in 2008 and 6.31 MWh in 2000 (IEA Atlas of Energy). After 2011, the share of the residential sector in the final energy consumption is declining (2016: 14%, 2011: 25%, 2000: 20% – IEA Atlas of energy data). In line with the same database, the share of renewables in the overall electricity generation is at very low levels, around 1% during the period 2011-2013, increased to 2% for the years 2014-2016.
According to IEA figures, CO2 emissions in Israel were 7.5 metric tons per capita in 2016 against 8.7 metric tons per capita in 2011 and 8.69 metric tons in 2001. CO2 emissions in Israel stem from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement and include those produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
Total GHG emissions: 63.7 MtCO2 (IEA, 2016)
Per capita CO2 emissions: 7.5 t CO2 /capita (IEA, 2016)
Carbon intensity of the economy: 0.2 kgCO2 /2010 USD (IEA, 2016)
Carbon intensity of the economy (PPP): 0.2 kgCO2 /2010 USD (IEA, 2016)
Carbon intensity of the energy sector: 2.8 t CO2/toe (IEA, 2016)
Share of renewable energy: 2% (IEA, 2016)
National Climate Change Policy
|Milestones in Isreal’s Climate Policy||Year|
|Ratification of the Framework Convention on Climate Change||1996|
|Submission of the initial National Communication||2000|
|Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol||2004|
|Establishment of the CDM –DNA||2006|
|Submission of the Second National Communication||2010|
|Submission of Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC)||2016|
|Paris Agreement (entry into force)||2016|
|Submission of the Third National Communication||2018|
NDC GHG Emission Targets
Israel intends to achieve an economy-wide unconditional target of reducing its per capita greenhouse gas emissions to 7.7 tCO2 eq by 2030 which constitutes a reduction of 26% below the level in 2005 of 10.4 tCO2 eq per capita. An interim target of 8.8 tCO2 eq per capita is expected by 2025.
More info on Israel’s NDCs.
Climate Adaptation / Resilience
In 2009, an inter-ministerial climate change adaptation committee was formed and instructed the preparation of a national climate change adaptation programme.
In 2011, the Ministry of Environmental Protection set up the Israeli Climate Change Information Center (ICCIC), which aims to develop the scientific knowledge base and policy documents that will feed into the national adaptation plan. The ICCIC has since submitted three reports – the first, in 2012, reviewed existing knowledge on the issue, and identified and prioritized knowledge gaps. The second, also in 2012, provided policy recommendations and an international marketing programme for ICCIC deliverables, while the third, in 2013, reviewed adaptation to climate change in local authorities.
The key policy recommendations of the ICCIC are:
- to make information on climate change more available to improve economic efficiency;
- a change in water resources strategy by implementing solutions from least cost to highest cost, with a priority on maximizing water supply efficiency, water recycling, water loss prevention and water demand management, investing in desalination plants only as a last resort;
- regulation that stimulates the autonomous adaptation of markets;
- to promote policies and regulations that support autonomous adaptation actions that would not otherwise be implemented due to lack of public awareness or bureaucratic obstacles.
The ICCIC also recommends addressing other vulnerable areas such as energy, agriculture, tourism, transportation, sea-level rise and local government.